Sentence কাকে বলে? কত প্রকার ও কী কী?বিস্তারিত আলোচনা কর?

শেয়ার করুন


1. SENTENCE কাকে বলে ?

উ: যে শব্দ গুচ্ছ মনের ভাব বা ধারনা
সম্পূর্ণরুপে প্রকাশ করে তাকে SENTENCE বলে ।

অথবা, দুই বা ততোধিক শব্দসমষ্টি একত্রে মিলিত হয়ে বক্তার মনের ভাব সম্পূর্ণ রূপে প্রকাশ করলেই কেবল তাকে sentence বা বাক্য বলা যাবে। অন্যথায়, একাধিক শব্দ এক সাথে মিলিত হলেও যদি সম্পূর্ণ রূপে মনের ভাব বা কথা প্রকাশ না করে তাহলে তাকে বাক্য বলা যাবে না।


  • Rahim is a student. (রহিম একজন ছাত্র।)
  • Sheela is going to school. (শীলা স্কুলে যাচ্ছে।)
  • Please open the door. (অনুগ্রহ করে দরজাটি খুলুন)

Sentence এর প্রধানত দুইটি অংশ:

  • Subject (উদ্দেশ্য)
  • Predicate (বিধেয়)

Subject: Sentence বা বাক্যে যখন কোনো ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুকে উদ্দেশ্য করে কোন কিছু বলা হয় তখন তাকে Subject বলে। Subject সাধারণত Sentence এর প্রথম অংশে বসে।


  • Karim goes to school.
  • Messi is a famous football player.

উপরের দুইটি Sentence এর মধ্যে Karim, Messi হলো Subject। যেখানে Karim, Messi কে উদ্দেশ্য করে কিছু বলা হয়েছে।

Predicate: Sentence বা বাক্যে Subject সম্পর্কে যা কিছু বলা হয় তাকে Predicate বলে।


  • Karim goes to school.
  • Messi is a famous football player.

উপরের দুইটি Sentence এর মধ্যে Karim, Messi সম্পর্কে যা কিছু বলা হয়েছে তা সবটাই Predicate।

subject ও predicate আরো সহজে শিখে নিন:

Shakibreads a book.
The sunrises in the east.
Cowsgive us milk.
Sheis beautiful.

অর্থানুসারে Sentence পাঁচ প্রকার:

  1. Assertive Sentence
  2. Interrogative Sentence
  3. Imperative Sentence
  4. Optative Sentence
  5. Exclamatory Sentence

1.  Assertive Sentence (বর্ণনামূলক বাক্য): যে Sentence বা বাক্য দিয়ে কোন কিছু বর্ণনা, বিবৃতি বা তথ্য প্রকাশ করা হয়, তাকে Assertive Sentence বলা হয়।


  • I like ice cream.
  • We have a private car.
  • Kabir goes to school.
  • Tupo is a good football player.
  • She is the best dancer here.
  • He does not love her.

2. Interrogative Sentence (প্রশ্নবোধক বাক্য): যে Sentence বা বাক্য দ্বারা কোনো প্রশ্ন করা হয়, তাকে Interrogative Sentence বলা হয়।


  • Is it cold outside?
  • What is your name?
  • Do you speak English?
  • Where shall we go?
  • Don’t you know who she is?
  • Do you want tea or coffee?
  • Do you play football?
  • When does the movie start?
  • Why haven’t you completed your homework?

II. Beginning with some specific words like who, which, what, when, where, why, how, whom, how much, how many, etc. [These are known as ‘WH’ questions.]

3. Imperative Sentence (অনুজ্ঞাসূচক বাক্য):

যে Sentence বা বাক্য দ্বারা কোনো আদেশ, উপদেশ, অনুরোধ, প্রস্তাব, নিষেধ ইত্যাদি বুঝায়, তাকে Imperative Sentence বলা হয়।

*** Imperative Sentence এ  Subject হিসেবে Second person (You) উহ্য থাকে।


  • Drive slowly.
  • Wait for me.
  • Please be quiet.
  • Clean your room.
  • Don’t stay out at night.
  • Let us go for a walk.
  • Do not laugh at the poor.
  • Always speak the truth.
  • Don’t ever touch my phone.
  • Please open the door quickly.

4. Optative Sentence (ইচ্ছা বা প্রার্থনাসূচক বাক্য): যে Sentence বা বাক্য দ্বারা কোনো প্রার্থনা, আকাঙ্ক্ষা, আশীর্বাদ বা ইচ্ছা প্রকাশ করা হয়, তাকে Optative Sentence বলা হয়। 

*** Optative Sentence সাধারণত May / Long Live দিয়ে শুরু হয়।


  • May Allah bless you.
  • May you prosper in life.
  • Long live our president.
  • Wish you a happy journey together.

5. Exclamatory Sentence (বিস্ময়সূচক বাক্য): যে Sentence বা বাক্য দ্বারা মনের আকস্মিক ভাব (আনন্দ, দুঃখ, বেদনা, বিস্ময়, আবেগ, বিষাদ) ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ করা হয়, তাকে Exclamatory sentence বলা হয়।

*** Exclamatory sentence সাধারণত What/ How/ Hurrah/ Alas ইত্যাদি দিয়ে শুরু হয় এবং Sentence এর শেষে Note of Exclamation (!) চিহ্ন বসে।


  • How he lies!
  • What a cute puppy!
  • What a happy ending!
  • Hurrah! We have won the game.
  • Hurrah! We are going to Cox’s Bazar.
  • Alas! I could not be at her funeral.
  •  How sweetly the cuckoo sings!
  • – What a wonderful land Bangladesh is!
  • – Were I a Super Hero!
  • – What a pity!
  • – Fantastic!
  • – What an idea!
  • – Put that down now!
  • – Leave the package at the door.
  • – Walk softly, please.Structure of a Sentence:

গঠন অনুসারে Sentence তিন (৩) প্রকার: 

  1. Simple Sentence (সরল বাক্য)
  2. Complex Sentence (জটিল বাক্য) 
  3. Compound Sentence (মিশ্র বা যৌগিক বাক্য)

১. Simple Sentence (সরল বাক্য): যে Sentence এ একটিমাত্র Subject এবং একটি Finite verb (সমাপিকা ক্রিয়া) থাকে, তাকে Simple Sentence বলা হয়।


  • I bought a pen.
  • He ate a mango.
  • We are playing.

উপরের তিনটি উদাহরনের মধ্যে ( I, He, We) হলো ‍Subject এবং (bought, ate, playing) হলো Finite verb.

২. Complex Sentence (জটিল বাক্য):

যে Sentence একটি Principle Clausse এবং এক বা একাধিক Subordinate Clause দিয়ে গঠিত হয়, তখন তাকে  Complex Sentence বলে।


  • I know who came here.
  • I know that he is honest.
  • He is a man whom everybody respects.

উপরের তিনটি উদাহরনের মধ্যে ( I know, I know, He is a man) হলো Principle Clausse এবং (who came here, that he is honest, whom everybody respects হলো Subordinate Clause.

৩. Compound Sentence (মিশ্র বা যৌগিক বাক্য): যে Sentence এ একাধিক Principle Clausse, Coordinating Conjunction দ্বারা যুক্ত হয় তখন তাকে Compound Sentence বলা হয়।

*** Coordinating Conjunction গুলি হলো: ( And, But, Or, Yet, Therefore, So, Otherwise, Not only ….. but also)


  • She is poor but happy.
  • I am weak but you are strong.
  • The boys sang and the girls danced.
  • I want to lose weight, yet I eat chocolate daily.
  • We have never been to Europe, nor have we visited Africa.


I. Simple Sentence:

Simple sentence is structured with only one subject and one finite verb.
Simple sentence has only one independent clause.

Subject + finite verb + complement
Exmaple:– India is a populated country
– Life is not a bed of roses
– Human is the superior in this planet.

II. Complex Sentence:

A sentence consisting of one principal clause and one or more sub-ordinate clause(s) is a complex sentence. Example:
– If you work hard, you will shine in life. (Here, ‘if you work hard’ is sub-ordinate clause and ‘you will shine in life’ is main or principal clause.)

Sub-ordinate clause begins with conjunctions like who, which, that, when, how, where, while, if, whether, because, since, as, though, although, till, until, unless, before, after, so that, whenever, wherever, whoever, whatever, etc.

Example:– I know where he lives.
– I do not know what his name is.
– While there is life there is hope.
– We eat so that we can survive.

III. Compound Sentence:

A sentence having more than one principal clauses, linked by one or more coordinating conjunctions, preceded by a comma, is called compound sentence.

Conjunctions that are used in compound sentences are and, but, or, for, nor, also, however, moreover, thus, so, therefore, else, still, as well as, accordingly, otherwise, yet, not yet, but also, either or, neither nor, on the contrary, etc.Example:
– Respect others, and others will respect you.
– He loves us, but he does not show it.

Some MCQ of Sentence:

  1. A sentence must have ……
    a) description
    b) statement
    c) group of words
    d) subject and a finite verb
    Answer: d
  2. A ‘subject’ means—–.
    a) the preceding of the adjective
    b) the syntax of the sentence
    c) the agent of a sentence
    d) the modifier of the sentence
    Answer: c
  3. The boy has a book. It is an_____.
    a) imperative sentence
    b) optative sentence
    c) a negative sentence
    d) assertive sentence
    Answer: d
  4. Choose the correct sentence.
    a) Do he have a house?
    b) Does he has a house?
    c) Do he has a house?
    d) Does he have a house?
    Answer: d
  5. Choose the correct option:
    a) What means this word?
    b) What does this word mean?
    c) What does mean this word?
    d) What is this word mean?
    Answer: b
  6. ‘Read attentively’ is a a) Assertive
    b) Imperative
    c) Optative
    d) Exclamatory
    Answer: b
  7. Which one is an optative sentence?
    a) Go you must.
    b) Help the poor.
    c) May Allah bless you.
    d) What a pity!
    Answer: c
  8. ‘If I knew this before!’ is an —
    a) Assertive
    b) Imperative
    c) Optative
    d) Exclamatory
    Answer: d
  9. Which one of the following sentences is a simple sentence?
    a) I know that he is rich.
    b) He is very weak, so he cannot walk.
    c) How soon he has come.
    d) In spite of his poverty, he is happy.
    Answer: d
  10. The sentence ‘ Everyone who came to the picnic brought his or her own food’ is–
    a) simple
    b) complex
    c) compound
    d) compound-complex
    Answer: b

11. They could not admire his bright performance because of they disliked him.

a) because of their disliking of

b) because of their dislike

c) because they dislike

d) as they have disliked

e) No correction required

Answer: (c)

The given sentence is the combination of two simple sentences:

(i) They dislike him.

(ii) They could not admire his bright performance.

To join the above two sentences ‘because’ has been used. The phrase in bold can be replaced by option (b), because this option is most similar to the phrase in bold. Other options are widely deviated and cannot be the correct choice.

12. She was uneasy because she had never be on a plane before.

a) had never been

b) never been

c) is never been

d) No improvement

Answer: (a)

When two actions are in the past tense, the first action is expressed in past perfect tense i.e. had + past participle of be (been)

13. Seeking to harm someone in return for a perceived injury

a) Affable

b) Cordial

c) Vengeful

d) Benign

Answer: (c)

14. Vengeful means seeking to harm someone in return for a perceived injury

a) When they have no money, they only work.

b) they only work

c) work only when.

d) No improvement.

Answer: (c)

15. I.T experts may have to stop hunting for better job opportunities as these are not so easily available now.

a) must have been hunting

b) may be stopping the hunting

c) should have to stop the hunt

d) might have to stop hunting

e) No correction required

Answer: (e)

এতক্ষন আমাদের সাথে থাকার জন্য ধন্যবাদ!

2 Comments to “Sentence কাকে বলে? কত প্রকার ও কী কী?বিস্তারিত আলোচনা কর?”

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